A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T V W X Y

A

ABL

The bottom layer of the troposphere that is in contact with the surface of the earth.

AOM

Service concept developed and offered by Vestas to with the aim of optimizing cost and production

AHTS

Vessel mainly built to handle anchors for oil rigs, tow them to location, and use them to secure the rigs in place. AHTS vessels sometimes also serve as Emergency Response and Rescue Vessels (ERRVs) and as supply transports.

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AA

An estimate of production on a site determined before operation based on wind resource investigations to determine the type and quantity of turbine(s) and wind farm setup. It should reflect the expected AEP.

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ACS

Strategy to make use of Advanced Control Systems by modelling the wind turbine using computing techniques such as proportional-integral-derivative (PID), soft computing or fuzzy logic.
acs

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Airfoil

Cross section of an aerodynamic wing, blades (of a wind turbine), wings, sails etc.
airfoil

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AEP

Estimation of energy produced annually based on local wind speed distribution at hub height and power curve of the chosen wind turbine. AEP is an ideal estimation, i.e. uncertainties, technical losses, downtime etc. is not included.

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AIM

Discipline of business processes, systems, tools, competencies and resources needed to ensure integrity throughout the entire asset life time.
aim

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AM

Coordinated activity of an organization to maximize value from assets, such as a wind farm. Asset Management refers to the full life time of an asset.

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AVA

Percentage calculated on a annual basis describing the availability of a wind turbine for operation. It can be based on different variables, e.g. time- or production-based. Furthermore availability is often divided in two categories: technical and contractual availability, latter adjusted for e.g. contract clauses and exemptions.
ava

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D

DT

Siemens Gamesa blade add-on that improves aerodynamic features

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DSV

A ship that is used as a floating base for professional diving projects.

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Davit Crane

Crane type lifting items between the wind turbine and service vessels. The Davit crane is most often located on the External Access Platform and/or the quay side in the harbour to lift components onto the CTV / SOV.

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DECEX

Costs for decommissioning a wind farm or turbine. Studies show it is approximately 5-10% of the Capital expenditures, but is largely dependent on the specific site and whether it is decied to repower the farm or remove it entirely.

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DRA

The act of estimating potential risk within a design process. It can be carried out throughout the entire design phase to prevent potential failures and errors and achieving higher reliability for the product (e.g. a new type of foundation or transformer used for a wind turbine).

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DDS

Object Management Group (OMG) machine-to-machine (also called middleware) standard that aims to enable scalable, real-time, dependable, high-performance and interoperable data exchanges using a publish–subscribe pattern. DDS is used in the wind turbine controller software.
dds

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DC

Fast tender boat used for accessing the offshore wind turbine from a SOV. It is suitable for lower wave heights than CTVs. Daughter crafts are obliged to stay within a certain distance to their SOV.
dc

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DNP

Period where defects can be notified to the Contractor under the purchase contract (TSA).
dnp

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DEVEX

Expenses before signing the main construction contracts, typically including lease and development costs. In some cases DEVEX is included as a part of CAPEX.
devex

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DD

Drive-train design set-up of a wind turbine, whereby the rotor is connected directly to the generator via the main shaft. The direct drive design eliminates the need for a gearbox, yielding different specifications and design for the generator.
dd

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DAB

A person or a panel of individuals (usually 3) that under the terms of the contract provide: (1) non-binding recommendations to the contracting parties on issues arising; and/or (2) a binding decisions in relation to such matters.
dab

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G

GoO

EU energy certificate which proves that a given amount of power is produced at a particular power plant. Guarantees of origin are the only precisely defined instruments evidencing the origin of electricity generated from renewable energy sources.

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GIS

A metal encapsulated switchgear consisting of high-voltage components which can be safely operated in limited spaces.

GACP

Protection system placed externally on offshore foundations to prevent corrosion.
gacp

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Grid

System which connects generating plants, e.g. wind farm to the consumer through distribution channels consisting of transmission lines and substations.
grid

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GPS

A satellite-based radio-navigation system to determine an exact position on ground or at sea.
gps

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GWO

Non-profit organisation of wind turbine owners and manufacturers. It aims at ensuring a safe and injury free working environment within the wind energy industry.

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GBS

Foundation type using gravity to position the turbine onto the seabed. It is often a concrete foundation placed on a stable seabed and the mass keeps it in place and position.

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J

J-tube

Tube named after its shape leading the inter-array cable or export cable from bottom of the wind turbine through the foundation down to the seabed (or longer) for protecting of cables from twisting, bending and collision.
j tube

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JUB

A type of Jack-Up vessel with jacket legs used for offshore wind turbine installation, foundation installation and exchange of major wind turbine components. The hull has a shape of a barge - this is where it got its name from.
jub

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Jack-up

Vessel for transporting, installing and changing larger components on a wind turbine. It is able to 'jack-up', meaning it has 4 self-elevating legs which fix the vessel on the seabed. This ensures a safe lift of heavy components and precise installation.
jack up

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Jacket

Foundation type having a lattice structure, with heritage in offshore Oil & Gas platforms. Mainly used for larger water depths and on specific seabed conditions.
jacket

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M

MCPG

Designed for the safe, efficient transfer of personnel and cargo to fixed or floating offshore installations.

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MTW

Indicates the average time between warnings or alarms.

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MTTI

Indicates the average time to recognize issues in service or component performance.

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MTTR

Indicates the average time between the start and the resolution of an incident.

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MTBF

A measure for asset reliability indicating how often an asset needs to be repaired.

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MCG

Designed for the safe, efficient transfer of personnel and cargo to fixed or floating offshore installations.

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MSL

The mean sea level at a given location. It influences for example the design of the offshore wind turbine foundation.

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MVOW

Joint venture of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Vestas Wind Systems with focus on manufacturing, installing and servicing offshore wind turbines.

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MP

Special type of main bottom component of a foundation, consisting of a steel tube hammered or vibrated into the seabed. Usually cheapest offshore foundation solution, but only suitable for certain seabed conditions and water depth.
gacp

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P

PFD

The probability of a system failure that prevents it from performing its safety function when required. PDF is calculated over a period of one hour and can be defined as either probability or maximum probability.

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PW

PEAK Wind is a market leader within the renewable energy industry, accelerating the global green transition through service offerings for investors, owners, developers, and operators of offshore, onshore, and floating wind assets.
peak-wind logo full

PB

Wind turbine control feature offered by Siemens Gamesa that enables an increase in annual energy production by raising the turbine rating under certain site conditions.

PSV

A ship designed to support logistics as well as transport of goods, tools, equipment and personnel to offshore platforms.

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PCu

Curve displaying the generated power according to the average wind speed. Each wind turbine type has its own power curve characteristic, e.g. dependent on the control system.

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PCC

Point in an electrical system, where multiple customers or multiple electrical loads may be connected. Also see Electrical Grid.
pcc

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PPA

Agreement between the power producer (the wind farm project) and the off-taker. It describes terms and prices for the power provided by the power producer.
ppa

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PBA

The ratio of actually produced power to possible power production based on the turbine availability.
pba

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PSO

Obligations made by the European Union to ensure services of public interest, while potentially promote other initiatives e.g. levy on electricity to cover initiatives for renewables energy.
pso

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PAS 55

British Standards Institution's Publicly Available Specification for optimized management of physical assets. The PAS55 served as the basis for the ISO standards family ISO 5500x.
owf

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V

VOB

Vestas' integrated SCADA system that enables access to turbine and fleet specific data and documents.

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VDR

Secure and confidential online database to distribute and store files and documentation in e.g. due diligence processes.

VDR

The equivalent for a vessel as to the black box in an airplane. It is used to trace its location and other essential information on various activities made by the vessel.

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VAWT

Special design of a wind turbine, named after the direction of the main shaft. The main shaft is placed along the tower and transverse to the wind. Advantages are the wind direction is negligible, but increased wake effect because its structure lowers the overall yield. Further it causes fluctuating loads on the structure leading to increased fatigue.

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W

WebWPS

A SCADA system to monitor and control remotely SGRE turbines.

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WEC

Device powered by the energy of the wind which generates mechanical energy that can be used to directly power machinery or to power an electrical generator for making electricity.

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WOW

See WD.

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WPY

The yield of a wind farm which is warranted by the OEM as stated in the SMA.

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WE

A wind turbine extracts energy from the wind, when converting energy from the wind into electrical energy. Further it and induces turbulence caused by its movement and friction with the air mass. Following this, the wind speed upstream (in front) of a turbine is higher than downstream (behind). This affects wind turbines standing downstream of another turbine resulting in less wind energy available and a more complex wind flow due to increased turbulence. One could say that the downstream wind turbine stands in the "shadow" of the upstream wind turbine.
we

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WKP

German term for a periodic inspection, e.g. every year.

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WTG

Wind turbine operating onshore. For Offshore Wind Turbine see OWTG.
wtg

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W2W

Access type between a vessel and access platform on a wind turbine. As the name implies it is a easy solution for access from vessel to an External Access Platform.
w2w

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WD

Period during which wind turbines are not operating due to for example unsuitable weather conditions or breakdowns. This term is also referred to as the period during which wind turbines are not accessible by a vessel.
wd

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Shear

Vertical and horizontal variation of the wind caused by surface roughness, obstacles and landscape contours. This figure indicates how much the wind changes across height.
shear

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WTIV

Term used for the jack-up vessel used during installation.
wtiv

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B

BTM

Electricity generated independent of the grid. ‘Meter’ refers to the electric meter at a site that measures how much grid energy is being used by the facility.

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BSEE

Agency within the United States Department of the Interior. Activities are among others to develop regulations and granting permits to ensure a safe working environment, protection and conservation of the environment and resources offshore such as oil, gas and renewables industry in the US.

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BI

Insurance covering loss of income. In the energy industry case, it will be loss of production due to causes as specified in the contract, e.g. damage to transmission assets, grid connection, etc.

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BOEM

Agency within the United States Department of the Interior, that is responsible for offshore renewable energy development in Federal waters. Activities are amongst others planning, leasing, permits and resource evaluation regarding offshore activities such as oil, gas and renewables.

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Boat landing

Access arrangement for service vessels to access a offshore wind turbine. The type of boat landing depends on foundation type.

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BSH

German authority in charge of regulations and permits granting to build offshore wind farms within German waters.

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BoP

Supporting components and auxiliary systems of a power plant needed to deliver energy, other than the generating unit itself. In the case of wind energy, BoP often comprises inter-array and export cables, off- and onshore substations, as well as foundations.
bop

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BFT

Scale describing wind force and wave height conditions, ranging from 0 (calm) to 12 (hurricane).
bft

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E

ECA

Public agencies or entites that provide government-backed loans, guarantees and insurance to finance domestic companies' international export operations and other related activities.

EP

Price of the electricity at the assumed moment.

EIA

Report comprising a number of investigations of the impact on the environment by building and operating, in example, a wind farm. The EIA must be completed for granting permission to develop a wind farm. It contains aspects such as bird mitigation, installation and operational noise, endangered species and surveillance plan over the lifetime of the farm. Usually the investigations and the related report is developed by external specialists. The EIA reports determine whether or not the project is in line with environmental regulations.
eia

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EQP

Platform attached on the Transition Piece (TP) of an offshore wind turbine generator (OWTG). Switchgear, lockdown system and elevator are often placed on the EQP.
Faraday

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ESP

See OSS. ESP is the term used in the United States of America.
esp

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EoL

Point in time referring to the wind farm approaching end of lifetime (after 20 to 25 years). There are different options to be considered: (1) Life time extension, (2) Repowering, (3) Decommissioning.
eol

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EoW

Point in time where a wind turbine or a wind farm goes out of warranty under the supply agreement. Typically after 2 or 5 years of operation.

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EPC

Type of "turnkey" contract comprising the full scope of engineering, procurement, and construction.
epc

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EPCI

Type of "turnkey" contract comprising the full scope of engineering, procurement, and construction as well as installation.
epci

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EHS

See HSE.
ehs

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EC

Cable(s) exporting the generated electrical power from the offshore substation (OSS) (or directly from the wind farm if an OSS is not a part of the project) to onshore substation.
ec

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EAP

Platform placed on TP to access the offshore wind turbine from a marine vessel, e.g. CTV or SOV.
eap

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H

HWRT

Siemens Gamesa software allows production beyond 25 m/s and ramps down production at 28 or 32 m/s to prevent multiple start-ups and shutdowns.

HPPP

System provided by Siemens Gamesa for monitoring and controlling the power and voltage generated by the turbine within a wind park

HHO

Operational task requiring helicopter, a qualified crew and possibly a helicopter deck.
hho

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Hs

Average height of the highest one-third waves in a wave spectrum. The height of the highest waves can be nearly twice as high as the significant wave height.
Hs

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HAWT

Mostly used type of wind turbine, named after horizontal drive train design. Thus blades are rotating vertically.
hawt

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HSE

HSE comprises all processes and functions dedicated to preserve health, safety and environment. It is sometimes referred to as EHS.
hse

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K

KPI

General term used for an organization or project to generate crucial indicators of how well or far they are from being successful and/or achieving main golds. Within the wind industry KPIs differs, depending on the owners priorities, e.g. cost, availability, yield, expanding lifetime.

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N

NAP

German term for Point of Common Coupling.

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NIMBY

Public phenomenon describing the opposition towards e.g. wind farms, if in their local area, while still having a general positive attitude towards renewables ("Great, but not in my backyard").
nimby

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R

RAID

A RAID controller is a hardware device or software program used to manage hard disk drives (HDDs) or solid-state drives (SSDs) in a computer or storage array so they work as a logical unit. The purpose is to create redundency in the case one disk fails or breaks.
raid

RBA

The ratio of earned revenue relative to the total potential earned revenue taking into account project energy potential and energy offtake value. The use of RBA warranty provides the right incentive to performing service activities during periods of low revenue for projects that are exposed to merchant power prices.
rba

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RCA

Thorough assessment of all factors to determine the 'source' of a potential or already happened failure. The result can conclude whether it is an error in the FEED or system, an error in the maintenance or similar.

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ROV

A vehicle, which is operated remotely. This means that the operator does not have to be physically in the same location as the ROV. Examples are toy race cars or drones. Usually ROVs are used in locations with difficult or dangerous access. In offshore wind ROVs are often used to scan the seabed and inspect foundation below water. Further drones are used to inspect blades of wind turbines.
rov

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ROC

UK specific certificate to accredit power stations, that generate electricity from eligible renewable sources, e.g. wind farms. Issued by the British regulator for the gas and electricity industry: Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (OfGEM).
roc

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S

SIL

A measure of safety system performance, in terms of probability of failure on demand (PFD).

SAP

A professional responsible for the safety in high voltage networks and authorized to perform high voltage operations.

SHA

Agreement among a company's shareholders that describes how the company should be operated and outlines shareholders' rights and obligations. This agreement also details information on the management of the company and privileges/protection of shareholders.

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SPA

Mutual agreement between two entities (seller and buyer or vendor and purchaser) on the terms and conditions regarding the purchase of a certain number of shares at a stated price.

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SWTCC

The controller for the Siemens Gamesa converter system in the WTG.

STIC

Gateway between the SGRE controller abd the SGRE SCADA system named WebWPS.

SSVG

A control system ensuring that the wind turbine do not exceed recommended vibration level on various components.

SQL

A domain-specific language used to communicate with relational database management systems.

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SHC

A crane installed on top of the turbine allowing major components to be changed while reducing mobilization scope and costs.

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SATV

Vessel to accommodate service technicians for a longer period e.g. 1-2 weeks. Typically used to make for example yearly inspections or larger retrofits of a wind farm more efficient if it is placed far from the shore.

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SP

Protective layer between seabed and foundation to prevent undermining the foundation by washing out sand. Consisting of rocks and stones placed around the foundation. Also used to protect export cables. Needs to be monitored by ROV or certified divers.

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Scour

Gap phenomenon happening between foundation and seabed. It occurs when seabed is washed away by currents. It can result in reduced support to the foundation. Sometimes scour is referred to as a scour hole.

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SRL

See fall arrest system.

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SAA

Service agreement for wind turbines provided by the OEM. The term availability refers to the availability warranty of the wind turbines.
devex

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SMA

Service agreement typically provided by the OEM supplying the serviced equipment as stated in the TSA, e.g. WTGs, SCADA and CMS for doing maintenance work for an agreed period of time.
sma

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SWA

Service agreement for wind turbines provided by the OEM. The term warranty refers to the availability warranty of the wind turbines.
sma

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SOV

Access solution used for safe transfer and accommodation of service technicians. Minor parts for inspection and repair work can be stored. Contrary to a CTV, SOVs can be used as a base for service technicians to stay in the wind farm for a longer period of time ( 4-6 weeks). A daughter craft or CTV might be used to supplement the SOV, for travel between the SOV and offshore wind turbine or substation.
Faraday

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SGRE

Joint venture of Siemens Wind Power and Gamesa with focus on manufacturing, installing and servicing wind turbines.

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SAT

Verification of component(s) to ensure that no damage occurred between leaving the factory and intended placement. Recommended to undertake identical tests as in Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT) to ensure comparability of results.
SAT

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SCADA

Computer-based system used for collecting, controlling and presenting data from various systems in a wind farm. Comprising among other: data from PLC controllers, individual process instruments, vibration and temperature measurement instruments.
scada

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X

XML

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a standard for exchanging data between computer systems and is also human readable.
xml

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Y

Yield

Estimated performance of a wind turbine based on its power curve.
shear

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C

CFD

Method for wind flow modelling. Done by simulating the wind flow across the site area and turbine positions by taking several atmospheric parameters and the terrain into consideration.

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CCU

Structural unit designed for repeated use in the transport of goods and equipment to, from, or between fixed and or floating offshore installations, ships, and/or shore-based operations.

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CSV

Multi-purpose offshore vessels able to support the construction and maintenance of offshore structures.

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CLV

Vessel used to install/place cable lines networks on to the seabed. It includes both inter-array and export cables.

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CPS

Subsea power cables should count on an adequate structure not only to avoid typical damages originated from harsh seabed conditions, but also to protect the cable structure when it enters the foundation. Furthermore system structure should also include a solution to avoid localized scouring around cables. The setup of the system vary according to the specifications of the cable, characteristics of the seabed, etc.

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CoA

A certificate issued by the proper authority, which grants an official approval of a project, construction, installation procedure etc. in order to comply with relevant regulations.

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CAR

Property Insurance covering physical loss arising from any fortuitous causes during the construction phase of the windfarm, except those that are specifically excluded.

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COD

Point in time (particular date) for transition from construction to operations. The COD can be calculated in different ways. For example, it could be defined as the point in time when the last WTG gets into operations or the average of the CODs of all WTGs. Before COD, there is usually a final walk-through and short test period (e.g. 240 hours without stop).

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CAPEX

Investment costs (non-recurring costs) generated over lifetime of a wind farm comprising of pre-development, production, installation, decommissioning, disposal, site clearance, as well as investments during operations.
capex

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CMS

Vibration monitoring system primarily used on rotating parts, e.g. bearings and main shaft. Also known as Turbine Condition Monitoring (TCM).
cms

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CTV

Access solution used for safe transfer of technicians, their tools and minor parts to a offshore wind turbine or substation.
ctv

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F

FIT

Agreed fixed electricity price paid to energy producers for each unit of renewable energy produced and transfered into the electricity grid. FIT is guaranteed for a limited period of time related to the economic lifetime of the project.

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FAT

Testing and validating whether components meet stated requirements before leaving the factory.
fat

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FAS

Safety system in a wind turbine enabling working at elevated heights.

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FID

The FID is a key milestone in wind farm development. Before FID, activities such as business case development, completion of permits and financial arrangement are carried out. After successful FID, contracts for all major equipment can be placed, allowing procurement and construction to proceed and engineering to be completed.
fid

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FOU

The foundation of a wind turbine ensures stability to the rest of the structure. Various concepts are available for both onshore and offshore purposes. An offshore foundation consist of two major components; an upper part called Transition Piece (TP) and a bottom part varying according to site specifics. The two main types are Monopile or Jacket. The latter is used for larger water depths.
fou

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FEED

An engineering design approach considering technical requirements and rough investment costs to enhance project cost planning and controlling.
feed

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I

IPP

Non-public utilities who own assets to generate electricity and later sell it to the national electricity network.

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IPR

Legal rights given to persons in order to protect the creations of their intellect (inventions, appearance of products, etc.)

ICC

The largest business organization in the world setting standards, principles and resolving contentious issues.

IEC

International organization dealing with standards regarding electronic, electrical and related technologies. The standards are used extensively in the wind business.

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ICCP

Protection system placed internally on offshore foundations to prevent corrosion.
gacp

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IAC

Cable network within wind farm connecting between wind turbine and a connection point, e.g. substation. Typical voltage 33kV or 66 kV. There is a certain number of wind turbines connected to one string before the array cable connects to the offshore substation.

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ISO 55000

A standard specifying requirements for an asset management system within the context of an organization. It refers to all kinds of assets, tangible and non-tangible. In the case of wind industry it refers to the management of physical assets.

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ITT

A formal request for supplier offers; term used across all industries.

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L

LOI

A non-binding document declaring the preliminary commitment of one party to do business with another.

LPF

LPF is a KPI developed by Vestas Offshore to measure productivity. LPF is calculated as the ratio between what the turbine has actually produced within a time period, and what the turbine could have produced within the same time period in normal conditions considering that no problems, alarms, stops, or any other non-operating reasons were present.

LiDAR

This instrument measures distances by emmiting a stream of photons that interact with particles in the air and then measures the reflection with a sensor. Used in the offshore wind industry for measuring wind speeds on board of a floating device.

LEP

Protective layer(s) placed on the leading edge of a blade to prevent environmental erosion from e.g. small particles such as rain drops, hail, grains of sands. Blades are more exposed to erosion, because of the rotational movement, resulting in a higher collision impact contrary to static components such as the tower or nacelle.

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Lift Boat

See Jack-Up vessel.

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LTP

Agreement between an owner of a wind farm and a contractor. The contractor is hired to service the wind turbines following the instructions agreed on in the LTP.

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LE

Describing the edge along the entire Wind Turbine Blade, where the wind flow has its first contact with the blade.

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LCoE

Average cost per kWh produced by a wind turbine taking into account its entire lifetime. Costs included are all, DEVEX, CAPEX, OPEX and DECEX costs, thus non-recurring and recurring costs.
lcoe

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LMU

Unit which is monitoring vibrations on components operating at low speed, e.g. detecting irregular changes and potential failure at the main bearing at an early stage.
lmu

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O

OT

OHVS

See OSS - Offshore Substation

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ODBC

An application programming interface (API) that connects with database management systems while remaining independent of them.

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OPC

Series of standards specifies the communication of real-time plant data between control devices from different manufacturers.

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OLE

A technology that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects.

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OSV

Multi-purpose offshore vessel, capable of not only transporting cargo to and from offshore floating facilities, but also covering mooring, installation, and fire fighting operations in a wide variety of offshore environments.

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OAR

Property Insurance covering physical loss arising from any fortuitous causes during the operational phase of the windfarm, except those that are specifically excluded.

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OWF

A cluster of wind turbines built at sea. Some of the important factors for building a wind farm are: (1) Distance to the shore and coupling point to the grid. (2) The water level and soil conditions, determining foundation type. (3) Environmental impact. (4) Wind and weather conditions.
owf

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OWP

German term for Offshore Wind Farm.
owp

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OnSS

Station located onshore. Receiving and converting power to a desired voltage and current. It receives power from Offshore Substation via export cables and feeds it into the grid.